Sunday, November 15, 2009 sigs...

Quick note:

One thing I hate about sigs is the fact that the sigs have no real documentation. Yeah, I know there's a site (a few, in fact) that provide this (via opensource efforts), but I much prefer to not have to research each and every sig all the time I'm investigating something.

Monday, August 17, 2009

FW Log Check

Doing a remote check of FW activity, I've found that the FW has blocked MANY IPs in the last 9 days:

[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.0908* | wc -l
Those are all unique IPs. Out of curiosity, I checked July's and May's logs:

[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.0907* | wc -l

[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.0906* | wc -l

All I can say is, "WOW!!" There was a HUGE spike in July (maybe due to summer vacation of most kids). Unfortunately, my logs don't go back beyond June.

I'm curious as to how August will be but I can already see that the number will be high. I'll update the blog as I as continue to watch.

[EDIT: I checked August's count and it is below:

zcat /var/log/bruteforce.0908* | wc -l

September (so far) is:
zcat /var/log/bruteforce.0909* | wc -l

I think I'll start scripting this command to run every week so that I can start trending.[09/15/2009]]


So, it is 7/19/2011.  I will try to graph what I'm about to provide, but here's what I have after zcatting some .gz files:


[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1107* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1106* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1105* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1104* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1103* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1102* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1101* | wc -l


[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1012* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1011* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1010* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1009* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1008* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1007* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1006* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1005* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1004* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1003* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1002* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.1001* | wc -l


[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.0912* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.0911* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.0910* | wc -l
[root@delly ~]# zcat /var/log/bruteforce.0909* | wc -l

[root@delly /var/log]# zcat bruteforce.* |wc -l
[root@delly /var/log]# zcat bruteforce.* |wc -l | uniq

Sunday, August 16, 2009

Strange traffic in Snort logs

Yesterday, I was messing around with an older machine which had an older version (and rules) of Snort.

I let it run overnight, sniffing internal network traffic. Today, I checked the logs and saw the following:

root@slackbox:/var/log/snort# cat alert | grep -> TCP TTL:63 TOS:0x0 ID:40635 IpLen:20 DgmLen:576 DF -> TCP TTL:63 TOS:0x0 ID:22086 IpLen:20 DgmLen:576 DF

The whole trace is here, since Blogger tends to choke on Hex payload

So, I've a few questions:

1. Who is

2. Who is and

3. So, I have a Tivo system in the house (the payload confirms this). Why is my Tivo calling out to an IP address that is owned by Verizon Business?

4. Why is my production internal Snort sensor not picking up this traffic but this test internal sensor is?

I've some answers to those questions:

1. is a WRT54GX4 Linksys router. This was somewhat difficult for me to find out, because my main router doesn't normally chat to this particular router (it is isolated). The WRT54GX4's sole purpose is to provide internet connectivity for my Tivo. The Tivo is using an old USB wifi connection that only has WEP support, so I use the WRT54GX4 to provide connectivity for the Tivo, lessening the risk in using WEP by isolating the WAP from the rest of the network. In order for me to find out what IP the Tivo is using, I'd have to sniff the traffic on the WRT54GX4's network, which I don't normally do. What I did instead was ping the IP, then check the arp table of the machine I pinged from. This told me the hostname and MAC address of the IP. Once I saw the hostname, I knew it had to be the Tivo generating this traffic (the payload above also helped).

2. I did a 'whois' search on IPs and Both show as belonging to Verizon Business. What threw me for a loop was that I was expecting it to show as owned by Tivo. After thinking on this a bit, it is more than likely that Verizon Business is providing IP space to Tivo (and maybe other hosting services). That is news to me, since I actually work for Verizon Business and am heavily involved in networking services.

3. I conducted Google searches on the IPs and came up with tons of hits. Some hits documented people who saw traffic outbound from their network to those IPs and they were concerned, but most of the hits show that the outbound connections are part of the Tivo service.

4. It is obvious that I have to compare the two internal Snort sensor's config files, specifically the http_inspect settings. Both internal sensors are on the same subnet (the Tivo is not...the WRT router is behind my main router and uses different IP space...the Tivo is behind this router), so both should've seen it. This leads me to believe that I've been missing some internal traffic, so I'll look into this issue soon.

I just wanted to post this so that when/if everyone that owns a Tivo sees such traffic, they won't get alarmed (I didn't see a specific page that stated that this was normal traffic).

Thursday, August 06, 2009

Linode uptime

ron@starchild:~$ w
18:09:25 up 417 days, 5:21, 2 users, load average: 0.01, 0.01, 0.00

Last year, I had the around the same, per's stats:

ID Name Last auto-update Uptime
316269 starchild 2008-05-12 00:06:02 414.8

Nice, huh?? Don't let the load average fool has a decent load at certain intervals, and that doesn't include when I'm doing maintenance.

Non-Slackware post

Working on my Dell Mini with gOS installed, I've edited the dock bar to include Mozilla's Thunderbird. Basically I edited .wbar in my ~/home dir...I've added the following:

i: /usr/share/icons/gOS3_Icons/scalable/apps/mozilla-thunderbird.png
c: glaunch thunderbird.desktop
t: Thunderbird

I added this under the Firefox entry.

The dock looked like this before the change:

The dock now looks like this:

I actually had to experiment with this. Apparently, the gOS forums lack this documentation, as I haven't seen any documentation on how to change the dock's format, so I'm posting it here.

EDIT: Wbarconf under "gOS/accessories" is apparently the tool to use to edit the dock bar. Found that tidbit of info here. Note the date of Oct 2008. Although I found the answer on my own, I searched the internet after I applied my edit, checking to see how prevalent the info is...its not that prevalent. That's about the only hit I got, other than one other explaining to download some GUI tool that would allow editing of the dock.

EDIT: Another link describing how to edit the dock bar. Look for "How to add edit and delete the content of the "dock" (Wbar)"

Also, after reading Linux Format LXF119, I've decided to try some hard disk information tools: Filelight, a tool that shows graphical representation of hard disk usage and HardInfo, which is a system profiler/benchmarker. Screenshots are below. Both are decent tools and I recommend them.



Monday, July 27, 2009

Killing my usage of Snorby

I've stopped attempting to get Snorby running. Why? After digging into this for over two weeks, logging my attempts on this blog, I again asked for someone to guide me in the right direction at Snorby's Google group:

Any news on this issue?

I'm at a dead standstill in implementing...can't even get a login

I realize your main focus is to get to v1.0 status, but its hard for
me to contribute to the project if I can't get it running even when
following the instructions specifically.


The response?


Version 1.0.1 is the current release. I very doubt you followed the
instructions properly as there are 20-30 people in the irc channel
that have had no issues. I am not even sure what your issue is. Did you rake snorby:setup RAILS_ENV=production

I have no problem helping when there are real errors but its quite
annoying when its just because someone did not read the docs.

Please post your logs and let me figure out a workaround.

- Dustin

My parting response:

I followed EXACTLY what was on your pages. If there's an issue with the way it was set up, it could be the fact that your instructions on your website need to be updated.

Look, I stated in my blog that I was going to test Snorby. You posted to my blog that you would like to know if there were any issues. I stated I had an issue and even gave you a LOT of debugging information, which is a far cry from what I've been seeing here in your Google group and now you're getting a bit snobbish?

I don't particularly like your tone, so from here on out, no Snorby for me. Cool project, but I shouldn't have to be a freaking Rails expert to use any security tool...really. The fact that I can set up Snort (and its deps) blindfolded and install most other frontends (and their deps) without issue or handholding tells me that I'm competent enough. I really don't need the attitude...and you did this on a freakin' group listing. An e-mail would've been more tactful, but in the end, your attitude would've rubbed me raw all the same.

And, you know what? You keep harping on visiting freenode. I've no problem with freenode, especially since I oper and have ownership of ##slackware, but if you would much rather leverage IRC for support, what do you have this group for? Really? If you respond to everyone here in such a manner when they ask questions about your tool, you're not going to get nearly the user base that you want. No one wants to be spoken down to in such a manner.

Anyways, I'm out. I've said my piece and will remove myself from this group. Please do NOT respond or send me e-mail. You've made yourself clear that you don't like helping people use your tool. I'm done.

The whole thread is here

Actually, I'm pretty pissed off. I don't like using someone's tool and trying to contribute but having issues even implementing the freakin' piece of software, especially when I get major attitude when asking questions. WTF is the use in supplying debugging traces when the developer doesn't even look at it and assess if there's something wrong with his code implementation or if the user is using it wrong. I have some project management skills and I can tell you now that if I developed a process at my work environment and my team had issues with my process, I'd want to know the who/what/when/where/why so that I can assess my process and see if I made an error or if it needs to be clarified. I NEVER tell my team something akin to, "you didn't read the process," especially if there is a high probability that they actually did. No one is infallible, not even this particular guy. I'd have been humbled if I'd found that there indeed were instructions that I'd missed...that's not the case, though, unless he's maintaining documentation in another place. I wouldn't know and I shouldn't have to visit a damned IRC channel to ferret out discrepancies or hunt for additional support in a new tool...WTF is the Google group for if I can't ask questions there? Can you imagine if everyone on the AOLS mailing group said, "visit the IRC channel for your answer"?

Belittling people alienates people. Not even US Army drill sergeants do this (don't believe everything you see on TV).

No Snorby coverage will happen here again. No Snorby usage will occur. We're closing this chapter right now!

EDIT: After this post and after a few days of cooling off a bit, I decided to determine if the issue was actually with me, the way I set up Ruby/Rails, or any configuration of Snorby. I was still 100% sure I followed the directions properly, so I didn't change any configs of Snorby or my Ruby/Rails setup. I only refrshed the Snorby environment by pulling the latest update. Guess what? Snorby worked. This leads me to believe that something in the Snorby code changed...something the developer changed after he pissed me off with his insistence that I hadn't read the instructions and that I was just another person using his tool who didn't know basic sysadmin skills. Kinda funny that the tool works now when I didn't change anything or reapply the instructions...I just refreshed the code. Something smells bad and it isn't me...

Thursday, July 23, 2009

Ruby, Rails, Gems Redux Part III

I'm starting to get a bit annoyed. I still can't get this working properly. Getting the same error as I got in my last post. I haven't changed anything but I've double- and triple-checked.

Right now, I'm currently posting to the Snorby Goggle group to try to get some assistance, which I usually don't have to do...I hate being dependent upon others, but that's just me.

Anyways, so far, I've been able to rule out MySQL as the culprit, as I'm seeing connections from Ruby to the MySQL server. I'm also able to connect to the server as 'root' and as 'snort'. The web server continues to issue status 500 and the Ruby logs indicate that there's something wrong with the user_session/new.html.erb file (keeps saying 'no credentials provided').

One suggestion I got is to do a 'git pull' to update Snorby from the Snorby directory. That command pulled quite a few changes, but after the pull, I'm still receiving the same error:

root@slackbox:~/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby# git pull
remote: Counting objects: 604, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (522/522), done.
Indexing 542 objects...
remote: Total 542 (delta 393), reused 43 (delta 12)
100% (542/542) done
Resolving 393 deltas...
100% (393/393) done
37 objects were added to complete this thin pack.
* refs/remotes/origin/cache_test: storing branch 'cache_test' of git://
commit: a30cf8e
* refs/remotes/origin/master: fast forward to branch 'master' of git:// e17ace1..7edf9e9
Updating e17ace1..7edf9e9

Fast forward
app/controllers/application_controller.rb | 2 +-
app/controllers/comments_controller.rb | 57 ++++++++++
app/controllers/events_controller.rb | 4 +-
app/controllers/pages_controller.rb | 25 ++++-
app/controllers/searches_controller.rb | 4 +-
app/controllers/user_sessions_controller.rb | 2 +-
app/helpers/application_helper.rb | 41 +++-----
app/helpers/comments_helper.rb | 2 +
app/models/comment.rb | 5 +
app/models/event.rb | 17 +++
app/models/importance.rb | 3 +-
app/models/report.rb | 2 +-
app/models/search.rb | 4 +-
app/models/user.rb | 17 +++-
app/views/comments/_comment.html.erb | 15 +++
app/views/comments/_form.html.erb | 9 ++
app/views/comments/create.js.rjs | 11 ++
app/views/comments/destroy.js.rjs | 2 +
app/views/comments/edit.html.erb | 3 +
app/views/comments/new.html.erb | 5 +
app/views/events/_comments_for_event.html.erb | 21 ++++
app/views/events/_event.html.erb | 21 +++-
app/views/events/_ip_data.html.erb | 15 ++-
app/views/events/_summary.html.erb | 8 +-
app/views/events/remove_event.js.rjs | 2 +-
app/views/events/send_event.html.erb | 4 +-
app/views/events/show.html.erb | 4 +
app/views/pages/category.html.erb | 13 +++
app/views/pages/category.js.rjs | 1 +
app/views/pages/dashboard.html.erb | 20 ++--
app/views/pages/severity.html.erb | 8 ++
app/views/pages/severity.js.rjs | 1 +
app/views/reports/send_report.html.erb | 2 +-
app/views/searches/send_search.html.erb | 2 +-
app/views/searches/show.html.erb | 4 +-
app/views/settings/index.html.erb | 2 +-
config/email.yml.example | 3 +-
config/routes.rb | 8 +-
db/migrate/20090719222259_create_comments.rb | 16 +++
db/schema.rb | 12 ++-
public/flash/clippy.swf | Bin 5380 -> 0 bytes
public/images/.DS_Store | Bin 12292 -> 12292 bytes
public/images/comment/comment_top.png | Bin 0 -> 4759 bytes
public/images/cross.png | Bin 655 -> 689 bytes
public/images/other/{destroy.png => destroy2.png} | Bin 715 -> 715 bytes
public/images/other/edit.png | Bin 0 -> 497 bytes
public/images/other/is_not_important.png | Bin 648 -> 633 bytes
public/images/other/no_comment.png | Bin 0 -> 604 bytes
public/images/other/slash.png | Bin 714 -> 689 bytes
public/images/other/slash2.png | Bin 0 -> 714 bytes
public/images/other/whois.png | Bin 0 -> 595 bytes
public/stylesheets/snorby.css | 118 ++++++++++++++++++++-
test/fixtures/comments.yml | 11 ++
test/functional/comments_controller_test.rb | 54 ++++++++++
test/unit/comment_test.rb | 7 ++
55 files changed, 504 insertions(+), 83 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 app/controllers/comments_controller.rb
create mode 100644 app/helpers/comments_helper.rb
create mode 100644 app/models/comment.rb
create mode 100644 app/views/comments/_comment.html.erb
create mode 100644 app/views/comments/_form.html.erb
create mode 100644 app/views/comments/create.js.rjs
create mode 100644 app/views/comments/destroy.js.rjs
create mode 100644 app/views/comments/edit.html.erb
create mode 100644 app/views/comments/new.html.erb
create mode 100644 app/views/events/_comments_for_event.html.erb
create mode 100644 app/views/pages/category.html.erb
create mode 100644 app/views/pages/category.js.rjs
create mode 100644 app/views/pages/severity.html.erb
create mode 100644 app/views/pages/severity.js.rjs
create mode 100644 db/migrate/20090719222259_create_comments.rb
delete mode 100644 public/flash/clippy.swf
create mode 100644 public/images/comment/comment_top.png
rename public/images/other/{destroy.png => destroy2.png} (100%)
create mode 100755 public/images/other/edit.png
create mode 100644 public/images/other/no_comment.png
create mode 100644 public/images/other/slash2.png
create mode 100644 public/images/other/whois.png
create mode 100644 test/fixtures/comments.yml
create mode 100644 test/functional/comments_controller_test.rb
create mode 100644 test/unit/comment_test.rb

root@slackbox:~/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby# script/server -e production -b -p 3000
=> Booting WEBrick
=> Rails 2.3.2 application starting on
=> Call with -d to detach
=> Ctrl-C to shutdown server
[2009-07-23 22:18:39] INFO WEBrick 1.3.1
[2009-07-23 22:18:39] INFO ruby 1.8.6 (2007-03-13) [i486-linux]
[2009-07-23 22:18:39] WARN TCPServer Error: Address already in use - bind(2)
[2009-07-23 22:18:39] INFO WEBrick::HTTPServer#start: pid=5752 port=3000

Processing UserSessionsController#new (for ::ffff: at 2009-07-23 22:18:40) [GET]
Parameters: {"action"=>"new", "controller"=>"user_sessions"}
Rendering template within layouts/application
Rendering user_sessions/new

ActionView::TemplateError (undefined method `login' for #) on line #8 of app/views/user_sessions/new.html.erb:
5: <% form_for @user_session, :url => user_session_path do |f| %>
6: <%= f.error_messages %>
7: <%= f.label :login %>

8: <%= f.text_field :login %>


10: <%= f.label :password %>

11: <%= f.password_field :password %>

/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/httpserver.rb:104:in `service'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/httpserver.rb:65:in `run'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:173:in `start_thread'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:162:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:162:in `start_thread'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:95:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:92:in `each'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:92:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:23:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:82:in `start'

Rendering /root/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby/public/500.html (500 Internal Server Error)

Processing ApplicationController#index (for ::ffff: at 2009-07-23 22:20:40) [GET]

ActionController::RoutingError (No route matches "/test/" with {:method=>:get}):
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/httpserver.rb:104:in `service'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/httpserver.rb:65:in `run'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:173:in `start_thread'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:162:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:162:in `start_thread'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:95:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:92:in `each'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:92:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:23:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:82:in `start'

Rendering /root/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby/public/404.html (404 Not Found)

Processing UserSessionsController#new (for ::ffff: at 2009-07-23 22:20:55) [GET]
Parameters: {"action"=>"new", "controller"=>"user_sessions"}
Rendering template within layouts/application
Rendering user_sessions/new

ActionView::TemplateError (undefined method `login' for #) on line #8 of app/views/user_sessions/new.html.erb:
5: <% form_for @user_session, :url => user_session_path do |f| %>
6: <%= f.error_messages %>
7: <%= f.label :login %>

8: <%= f.text_field :login %>


10: <%= f.label :password %>

11: <%= f.password_field :password %>

/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/httpserver.rb:104:in `service'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/httpserver.rb:65:in `run'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:173:in `start_thread'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:162:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:162:in `start_thread'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:95:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:92:in `each'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:92:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:23:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:82:in `start'

Rendering /root/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby/public/500.html (500 Internal Server Error)

Grrr. Something isn't quite right here. I've followed the documents properly in installing Snorby, but something was obviously missed. I'm totally reliant upon the developers at this point. While this is normal for some people, it isn't for me. At work, our dev team are the VERY last people I go to, because they tend to either try to make you look stupid or will say some shit like 'it is what it is'. I'm trying to keep in mind that my bad experience with developers is limited to work and not the open-source community. That being said, I've invested quite a bit of time and effort on the Snorby project. While I've learned a few things, I do have an end goal and I'm a goal-oriented person.

I'll stop updating on Snorby until I actually have it working.

Friday, July 17, 2009

Ruby, Rails, Gems Redux Part II

Did a little research on the gem for MySQL and decided to try this:

root@slackbox:~/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby# locate mysql_config
root@slackbox:~/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby# gem install mysql -- --with-mysql-config=/usr/bin/mysql_config
Building native extensions. This could take a while...
Successfully installed mysql-2.7
1 gem installed
Installing ri documentation for mysql-2.7...
Installing RDoc documentation for mysql-2.7...

Now about my Snort architecture, I'm thinking all I'm gonna have to do is copy my Snort database over to Slackbox and then have my two Snort machines (one internal and one sensor at a datacenter) report to Slackbox....OR, have the Snort sensors report to BOTH the FreeBSD server AND Slackbox! I think the latter will work and it sounds like the better solution.

I'll be updating this post with my successes and failures most of the night, I suspect, or at least until I get good and pissed off. LOL!



There's nothing like backing up an 83MB database file on old hardware:

Starting: 6:31PM up 23 days, 19:27, 4 users, load averages: 2.89, 2.94, 3.13

Ending: 6:33PM up 23 days, 19:29, 4 users, load averages: 5.88, 3.98, 3.51

While I'm sure that's incomparable to an enterprise database, at one point, I thought the old dell system would lock up.

I also was trying to do this via phpMyAdmin on both machines, but I didn't know the dbase size was that large (4 yrs of sniffing data). phpMyAdmin on the BSD box would say it was finished exporting but I'd check the filesize and it was different each time (did it like 4 times before I decided to go commandline. phpMyAdmin kept giving me a filesize of between 20M and 40M. It must've been choking out. I optimized the dbase, also, so it was more than likely larger than 83MB.



Had to upgrade MySQL, as my 83MB file wouldn't import into Slackbox's MySQL server. 30 seconds into the import, the import would lock up or die. Apparently, it's a known issue with MySQL's lower versions.

Anyways, after the import and creation of new MySQL users, I had to edit Snorby's config/database.yml file, specifically the development part. The reason:

root@slackbox:~/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby# script/server -p 11001
=> Booting WEBrick
=> Rails 2.3.2 application starting on
=> Call with -d to detach
=> Ctrl-C to shutdown server
[2009-07-17 21:48:14] INFO WEBrick 1.3.1
[2009-07-17 21:48:14] INFO ruby 1.8.6 (2007-03-13) [i486-linux]
[2009-07-17 21:48:14] WARN TCPServer Error: Address already in use - bind(2)
[2009-07-17 21:48:14] INFO WEBrick::HTTPServer#start: pid=3848 port=11001
/!\ FAILSAFE /!\ Fri Jul 17 21:48:17 -0400 2009
Status: 500 Internal Server Error
Can't connect to MySQL server on 'no_not_use' (111)

It's still not clear to me why I had to edit it, but I did because the production portion was populated with the proper credentials but I was still receiving the above error..."Can't connect to MySQL server on 'no_not_use'". When I did it, I stopped getting that error.

*** I found why I was getting the MySQL error. The config/database.yml development entry has 'mysql' for the database entry. It should be 'no_not_use'. I've edited this to what is was originally supposed to be and changed everything back to 'no_not_use'. I no longer get the error when using the production settings. ***

Also, notice that I ran in what I want to call 'debug mode' because I wanted to see what was hanging up the connection.

So, now, after some editing and fiddling, I get the following in 'debug mode':

root@slackbox:~/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby# script/server -e production -b -p 11001
=> Booting WEBrick
=> Rails 2.3.2 application starting on
=> Call with -d to detach
=> Ctrl-C to shutdown server
[2009-07-17 21:55:37] INFO WEBrick 1.3.1
[2009-07-17 21:55:38] INFO ruby 1.8.6 (2007-03-13) [i486-linux]
[2009-07-17 21:55:38] WARN TCPServer Error: Address already in use - bind(2)
[2009-07-17 21:55:38] INFO WEBrick::HTTPServer#start: pid=3915 port=11001

Processing UserSessionsController#new (for ::ffff: at 2009-07-17 21:55:40) [GET]
Parameters: {"action"=>"new", "controller"=>"user_sessions"}
Rendering template within layouts/application
Rendering user_sessions/new

ActionView::TemplateError (undefined method `login' for #) on line #8 of app/views/user_sessions/new.html.erb:
5: <% form_for @user_session, :url => user_session_path do |f| %>
6: <%= f.error_messages %>
7: <%= f.label :login %>

8: <%= f.text_field :login %>


10: <%= f.label :password %>

11: <%= f.password_field :password %>

/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/httpserver.rb:104:in `service'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/httpserver.rb:65:in `run'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:173:in `start_thread'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:162:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:162:in `start_thread'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:95:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:92:in `each'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:92:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:23:in `start'
/usr/lib/ruby/1.8/webrick/server.rb:82:in `start'

Rendering /root/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby/public/500.html (500 Internal Server Error)

The thing is, I see nothing in the web browser, but:

We're sorry, but something went wrong.

We've been notified about this issue and we'll take a look at it shortly.

Something else that is nagging me that I was trying to fiddle with is:

[2009-07-17 21:55:38] WARN TCPServer Error: Address already in use - bind(2)

There is only one Ruby service running and nothing is utilizing that port when I run Ruby. I'm ignoring it for now.

I would love to see what the WEBrick logs show, if there are any.

For now, its time to do some serious Googling and maybe hit up my three Ruby/Rails books.

Ruby, Rails, Gems Redux

I decided to use Slackware this time. I've had better luck.

My install already has Ruby 1.8.6 (the latest stable is 1.8.7, I believe).

Ran into an issue when following these instructions. Was supposed to do 'rake gems:install' but got a 'prawn' error

root@slackbox:~/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby# rake gems:install
(in /root/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby)
rake aborted!
no such file to load -- prawn

Fixed it by using 'gem install prawn'. After running that command, I was able to run the 'rake gems:install' without error.

Now I'm having a similar issue when running 'rake snorby:setup':

root@slackbox:~/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby# rake snorby:setup
(in /root/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby)
Setting Up Snorby Database.
!!! The bundled mysql.rb driver has been removed from Rails 2.2. Please install the mysql gem and try again: gem install mysql.
rake aborted!
no such file to load -- mysql

Running 'gem install mysql' give me a BUNCH of errors:

root@slackbox:~/RAILS/RAILS/Snorby# gem install mysql
Building native extensions. This could take a while...
ERROR: Error installing mysql:
ERROR: Failed to build gem native extension.

/usr/bin/ruby extconf.rb
checking for mysql_query() in -lmysqlclient... no
checking for main() in -lm... no
checking for mysql_query() in -lmysqlclient... no
checking for main() in -lz... no
checking for mysql_query() in -lmysqlclient... no
checking for main() in -lsocket... no
checking for mysql_query() in -lmysqlclient... no
checking for main() in -lnsl... no
checking for mysql_query() in -lmysqlclient... no
*** extconf.rb failed ***
Could not create Makefile due to some reason, probably lack of
necessary libraries and/or headers. Check the mkmf.log file for more
details. You may need configuration options.

Provided configuration options:

Gem files will remain installed in /usr/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/mysql-2.7 for inspection.
Results logged to /usr/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/mysql-2.7/gem_make.out


But, I'm a lot closer this time than last time. I'll sort it out either tomorrow night or this weekend.

Oh, and one more thing. Maybe this is more complicated than it has to be, because I've already got BASE running on a server who's internal IP is (FreeBSD on a Dell server/workstation). The MySQL server is also on that box. Maybe I don't actually need the MySQL gem? Can I leverage the actual database on the FreeBSD box and maybe skip some steps? We'll find out, otherwise, I'm going to have to maybe copy the database over to the Slackware machine so I can test. Yeah, I really wanted Snorby on the FreeBSD box but for some reason I'm more comfortable with Slackware.

Monday, July 13, 2009

Rails, Ruby, Gems...PITA

I spent the evening trying to get Snorby installed.

I've sporadically messed with Ruby on Rails before, actually getting it installed and playing a bit with it before moving on to other things.

Now, I've been hindered by an out-of-date Rails install. I tried to install Snorby and every step I have to take two steps backward. I ended up reinstalling to the latest version that FreeBSD (yeah, doing this on a BSD install, as it seems easier to install this way), but that version wasn't high enough.

Now, I'm installing the latest by source. I'm as far as I've ever been tonight, which is good because I'm running out of time. I'm installing the Gems at the moment and the install is agonizingly slow (doing this on a dual proc 450MHz machine). It appears most of this are documentation installs. :/

Maybe I can get this done and still be able to get a bit of sleep before I've to get up for work.

So far, see below .txt file...looks good so far:


[root@delly /usr/local/www/data/Snorby]# rake snorby:setup
(in /usr/local/www/data/Snorby)
Missing these required gems:

You're running:
ruby 1.8.5 at /usr/local/bin/ruby18
rubygems 1.3.1 at /root/.gem/ruby/1.8, /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/1.8

Run `rake gems:install` to install the missing gems.
Almost there but I'm out of time...will continue tomorrow.

Main Slackbox (named slackbox) back online

I finally had time to figure out what was going on with my Slackware tower. It has been down for so long I forget when it actually started having issues. I believe it began having problems since the beginning of 2009.

The culprit? Either the SATA drive that I installed in it awhile back or the SATA controllers on teh board. It's difficult to tell without swapping the SATA drive out for another. I just disabled it (the drive) for now. It works fine without it connected...that tells me its the drive and not the controller.

I began by trying to boot it up by using a Ubuntu LiveCD. It wouldn't boot up and showed many ATA-based errors in the logs. I tried a different Ubuntu LiveCD (v8.10, I believe)...still, same issue.

It was then that I started focusing on the SATA drive. I just unplugged it and tried to a reboot and the system has been running for about a week without any issues.

So, I lost a drive. It's not a big deal, as that drive was hosting Windows, I believe. Weird, because that drive is rather young. I believe its a WD (I have seriously bad luck with that brand). I can do without replacing that drive for now, though.

Friday, June 26, 2009

Youch! Freenode bans connections

New freenode webchat (and why to use it)


I remember awhile back, the server opers would frown upon banning Mibbit users. I guess they had a change of heart due to abusers using Mibbit to dodge bans. I remember having to place broad bans on Mibbit on a temp basis, but it was always temporary bans that I placed. I even became a Mibbit user. I hadn't joined the server using Mibbit in about a month so something happened recently for Freenode to lock out all Mibbit connections.

Oh well.

For now, Freenode is hosting its own web-IRC client:

Saturday, June 06, 2009

Researching and found an old flamefest spark


Summary: At, there was a discussion on the security forums on how vulnerable Linux was to attacks/malware. Someone didn't like what was being discussed because of typical Linux zealotry. What happened on LQ's forums spilled over into ##slackware on IRC. Dagmar, the instigator of a LOT of bad things that used to happen in ##slackware got perm banned by me. Later, documented in the link above, he is his typical self, not even attempting to objectively explain what the whole thing was about, pretty much slandering me about how flawed my thoughts are on the whole thing and is worrying that I'll propagate bad information.

Let me explain some things about myself. I'm an IT security engineer. I don't just mess with routers and I'm not some glorified network engineer. I'm a senior consultant. I not only consult, I'm able to find "needle-in-the-haystack"-type info using packet-level analysis. Most of what I do requires that I be a jack-of-all-trades in network engineering, but my specialty is security. I'm proficient in utilizing many industry-leading security tools, both freeware and commercial software. I work at a very large ISP/telecom within a large managed security services team. I am THE lead of a government security operations center. We manage well over 100 customers' security posture via firewalls, NIDS, HIDS, and IPS appliances, using ArcSight, an aggregation and correlation tool that is fast becoming the standard in security event monitoring.

Every day, we see machines being compromised...this is nothing new. The compromises span every mainstream OS. This includes Linux. Whether it is kernel level or application level is not the argument. The argument is that Linux is not as rock-solid as everyone makes it out to be. Sure, it has more safeguards than Windows-based systems, but it is still susceptible to application-level exploits. Whether this is a coder issue or PEBKAC/user/admin issue is besides the point.

People need to stop thinking that just because they are running Linux, they are safe. That is NOT the case. This is not paranoia speaking. It is from seeing such things happen on a daily basis during security event monitoring. Due to applications such as PHP-Nuke, it is becoming more difficult to secure back end applications. It is much harder to stop SQL injection than it is to stop SSH brute-forcing, for instance. This isn't the only issue, though. The issue is the perception that because Linux code is open and free, the code base is free of vulnerabilities. That is NOT the case. Also, many people think that a majority of the cracker focus is on Win32 because MS has a majority of the market share. That also is NOT the case. That is a big assumption. milw0rm and other such sites document many *nix-based vulnerabilities, along with Bugtraq at Securityfocus track all vulnerabilities. Sometimes, people justify Linux because its security model is better focused than Win32 systems. It is, but that does not mean that Linux is rock-solid. It has its own faults, whether it is the user, the admin, or the software developer (or even kernel developer).

Dagmar has a habit of blocking out people's opinions and sometimes beating people down with his own. Dagmar thinks he knows security more than anyone else when he's just a developer. I see attacks every day on all types of machines. Some of the attacks are successful. I doubt that Dagmar sees those. Dagmar need not worry about me "propagating" untruth, because what I say IS the truth. All you have to do to see the truth is to research and not be blind to other opinions.

Dagmar also stalked. After the IRC discussion, he began to frequent the LQ security forums and respond to every thread I posted to. He was hardly ever in those forums before then. I noticed this immediately (and also checked). I didn't mind this, but when it spilled back over into IRC, I tired of it and wanted it really had no place in ##slackware and I was fed up with his attitude about the whole thing. I don't suffer drama very well.

Now, Dagmar has been banned several times before for the lack of tact in the way he 'helped' people in ##slackware. He was walking a thin line to begin with. Those with operator status in ##slackware acknowledge that he is knowledgeable, but that is not grounds for him to be dismissed as an abusive ##slackware visitor. Sure enough, he did the same thing with a channel operator (me) and I banned him. I also discussed it with the other operators. The consensus was that he stay banned since his history of being banned was substantial.

That was why he got banned...not because his views went against my own, but because he started regressing back to his former self and became abusive. He did the same in the forums, but I was able to filter his posts from my normal views. As an operator at, I can't and shouldn't filter any visitor from my views in ##slackware, so my only option was to ban him, and like I said before, he'd his own infamous nature that was going against him.

As a security consultant, I'm certainly not going to keep my thoughts quiet about what I think is a disservice to my favorite operating system. I certainly know more than someone who is not a security consultant about IT security...its what I get paid to do and its what I've been doing for years. It's the same as a person who has built his own car, vs. someone who works as a senior Mercedes mechanic.

As much as I can, I tell people that there is NO secure OS. It is only as secure as the admin makes it, and even if the admin puts 100% resources into hardening the box, it will never be 100% secure. The LQ security forums is itself proof that Linux systems get compromised more than most people think. 2-3 times a week, someone reports they've been compromised. There's even 4 threads on Linux-based vulnerabilities:

Kernel Vulns
Mozilla Firefox Vulns
The Problem with PHP Application Security
Failed SSH Login Attempts

I can post a ton of other links but why do this when there is Google?

Tuesday, May 26, 2009

No further issues with gOS so far

It has been a very good experience, so far.

In fact, I've also been leveraging Thunderbird...this is a first time for me (since Netscape Mail back in the 90s). It is very robust!

I've also aliased a few commands that I tend to use alot, mainly ssh commands that I use on remote hosts.

I've also found some decent background images that I've scaled (using Gimp) to 1024x600.

I've also been conducting my typical security audits (BASE and iptables and web server log perusing).

I've not used my Mac in like 3 weeks! I don't know if that's a good or bad thing (probably bad for the battery).

Monday, May 11, 2009

gOS v3.1 installed on Dell Mini 9

I took the plunge and installed gOS v3.1 Gadgets onto the Dell Mini 9.

The install went flawlessly.

The issues I have discovered so far:

1. Wireless would not work. I followed the instructions located at I applied this fix (when I was using a cat5 connection) and it worked, so the wireless non-functionality is no longer an issue.

2. The Mini won't suspend when I close the lid. I can manually suspend, though. I'll hunt for a fix and apply it later.

I also just noticed that a swap partition was created and configured for use (automatically, when installing gOS). I already have a gig of physical RAM and I don't want to burn out my SSD card, so I'll disable it for now and consider a workaround if/when I need it.

Overall, this is a pretty solid distro and it is pretty cool to be able to use Google tools (this will save drive space and conserve the limited resources this machine has). The Gadgets can also be used offline, so I won't need to be connected to use, that's cool.

Some screenshots:


Fixed the sound issue by following Step 4 of "Installing Ubuntu 8.10 on the Dell Inspiron Mini 9".

I turned off the swap partition by editing out the swap entry in /etc/fstab. I'll test to see how this impacts my install of gOS before removing the partition.

Tuesday, April 14, 2009

Power adapters and other news

Wouldn't it be nice if the laptop empire joined forces and standardized laptop power adapter cords? I've several laptop and each requires a dedicated cord. I forgot my cord for my Mini today...fortunately, it has a decent charge, but I now have to watch consumption of power. Good thing my Macbook is in my truck. May have to go get it!

Other news:

I'm still trying to script FW log parsing. I've pretty much nailed it for my BSD machine, but will need to edit what I have, as the script parses and adds IPs to a block list. Sometimes, I just want to parse and find the top 10 offenders. I also still need to do this on my Linux machines. I've a script that parses (for Linux) but it is very rudimentary. And, I still want to port the script to Perl or Python.

Tuesday, March 10, 2009

tcpdump, Dell Mini, and BASE

So, I'm wondering why tcpdump is missing from the default install of my Dell's Ubuntu...doesn't make sense. I was having issues with getting my wifi card associated with my WAP and wanted to see the packets leaving the wireless interface, so I tried to bring up tcpdump, but it wasn't available. I actually had to hook a cat5 cable to the Mini to get this package, just to troubelshoot. I noticed the same thing with Suse about a year ago.

Apparently, tcpdump was created on the permissive free software license, per Wikipedia. I don't know if this is actually GPL or a derivative of GPL. The manpage doesn't mention what license tcpdump falls under and I'm sometimes wary of Wikipedia, as I like to find the facts on my own to validate (or invalidate) internet claims.

I'll research this and post my findings here.

On another note, I found a very cool bag for my Dell Mini, at Dell's website. I'll try to post pics and a link soon (from my Macbook, as the Mini's keyboard slows me down a bit).

Lastly, I somehow broke access to my MySQL database, so now my snort sensors won't report to it. It's been down for about 2 weeks and I don't have the time to fix it. I'm going on vacation for my birthday and hope to have some personal (ie, QUIET) time to myself to fix this. I'll be visiting my parents for my birthday this weekend and will see about shelling in to fix it remotely.

Tuesday, March 03, 2009

Worked on...

Reconfigured mnwclient so that I can provide FW logs to MyNetworkWatchman (which is similar to Dshield).

I'd much rather get Dshield working on the Linode but for some reason, I been having difficulties using their supplied clients. I'll continue to work on it, as I had it working prior to the last Linode upgrade.

With that in mind, at some time I'm going to have to upgrade the Linode from v12.0 to v12.2.


Monday, March 02, 2009

What I've installed on the Mini so far...

So far, I've installed the following on my Dell Mini:

tcpdump (IMO, this is a mandatory package...should've been installed by default)
gdesklets (I'm going to remove this because desktop space is at a premium)

That's it, so far. Surprisingly, I find myself not needing much more than what apps are already installed. Then again, I've had the Mini for less than a week. :)

EDIT: also installed 'locate' but the install didn't include the updatedb.conf file...working on that now.

Wednesday, February 25, 2009

My Mini is here!

My Dell Mini has arrived. Went to pick it up at the local Fedex facility last night.

It came in a LITTLE box. Basically, it was just the netbook and the adapter that were in the box, with a few CDs and documents.

I took it out and plugged it up and the battery was almost fully charged already, but I charged it anyways.

The keypad is small and my big hands don't help much but the unit itself is pretty slick.

The tech specs are below:

32gb SSD drive
1.3mb vidcam
1gb RAM
Ubuntu Linux OS
Black in color

I opted for no bluetooth but now I'm thinking maybe I should've went that route (although it would've jacked up the price.

I now need a case. For now, I'm carrying it in my work laptop's bag.

My immediate problem is that it won't connect to any wireless networks, either at home or at work. I did a quick search and this appears to be a known issue. I'll have to delve more into this. When I attempt to have it automatically apply the wireless setting and check those settings, the settings are blank (no IP or DNS). Manually applying them doesn't help.

So, I'll be occupied the next few days... :)

Thursday, February 12, 2009

Dell Mini 9 and system upgrades

I just ordered a Dell Mini 9.

It should be here next week. I purchased the 16GB SSD upgrade and webcam. It is also a Windows XP model. Later, I'll more than likely either install Linux on it (or OS X), although this will require a USB optical drive.

The plan is to also upgrade the SSD to 32GB (a $119 purchase at My Digital Discount).

More than likely, I'm going to sell my Macbook (and maybe use the money to get an iMac).

As for my dead motherboard, it looks like I'm looking at this. I've decided to go AMD Phenom. Why? Because, while I want to upgrade to quad core while I can, I don't want to go Core i7 because I'd have to spend butt-loads on the CPU and motherboard in addition to DDR3 RAM...too much upgrading. At this point, I don't even want to go Intel. While Intel has better bang for the buck regarding CPU power and robustness, I'm extremely loyal to AMD. There's nothing wrong with AMD's products if you don't benchmark (and I'm not one to hang his every decision on raw stats alone). I should have the parts within a month...then I can game again. This will leave me with an unused Pentium D 830 (dual core), though. That means I'll more than likely buy a cheaper motherboard just to utilize that CPU in one of my older is a nice CPU with good power.

EDIT: I upgraded my Mini order because they were offering a $50 discount on Presidents Day. It will have Ubuntu and it will also have a 32GB SSD. More than likely I'm going to send it back, though, since Asus has a better buy, sans the SSD, but also has BT.

About my mainboard and CPU upgrade. I went AMD. I bought a Phenom 940 with a Foxconn mainboard. It is up and running now. It is FAST and I've yet to see all 4 cores maxed out! I also bought another mainboard for the Pentium CPU. That's a project for another day, though.

Foxconn A79A-S AM2+/AM2 AMD 790FX ATX AMD Motherboard

AMD Phenom II X4 940 Deneb 3.0GHz Socket AM2+ 125W Quad-Core Black Edition Processor Model HDZ940XCGIBOX

Friday, January 30, 2009

System dead


OK. Apparently when the Ultra PS died, it may have taken the motherboard with it. The machine has been blue-screening ever since the PS replacement, just not as frequently as before.

I also noticed that the HSF on the Northbridge isn't working. When searching Google for issues with the Northbridge, I found that this is happening to others and that it actually signifies a motherboard failure. The Northbridge gets HOT and I'm assuming that over time, the heat has killed the motherboard.

This is the time to upgrade, I guess. I'll more than likely buy a new motherboard/CPU combo and it'll more than likely be a quad-core CPU that I'll be getting (Phenom):




EDIT - I ended up purchasing a

Foxconn A79A-S AM2+/AM2 AMD 790FX ATX AMD Motherboard

and a

Retail AMD Phenom II X4 940 Deneb 3.0GHz 4 x 512KB L2 Cache CPU

and basically rebuilt this is SMOKING. I was gaming and installing game patches for another game AND XP updates, and only two cores were being used while two were idle!! I put 3GB of RAM into the system (I almost put 4GB but then realized that XP 32-bit would only see 3GB of it...time for a 64-bit Windows OS install, I think). I really should install some high-grade RAM, though, as I think I only have 667mhz installed.

I also bought a

BIOSTAR TForce TP43D2A7 LGA 775 Intel P43 ATX Intel Motherboard

for to replace the motherboard in the Pentium-D system...I'll use this motherboard and CPU to rebuild my old Sempron 3000+ system (I'm starting to stack up 'older' motherboards and CPUs).

Wednesday, January 07, 2009

Recent Happenings

I've added 2 more GB to my gaming system (the Ultra that I bought from TigerDirect 2 yrs ago). The system now has a total of 4GB. It runs Windows XP, so its only seeing 3.25GB of the installed 4GB, as I'm running XP 32-bit. I need to either go to Vista or install XP 64-bit. I may just wait until the new version of Windows desktop is released.

I've also begun to (again) monitor my internal LAN traffic at home. I broke down my security systems this past Fall because I bought a house and had to move. I wanted to reinstall my external IDS but didn't want to run an ethernet tap yet, so I used the same machine to just log internal traffic for now. Later, I'll have this machine start a separate Snort process that will monitor external traffic via the tap.

I need to upgrade my Slackware boxes to v12.2. The current boxes are running v12.0, including my Linode ( I'll try to do this soon, although this will require upgrading from v12.0 to v12.1, then v12.1 to v12.2.

I'll also begin to attempt to convert all (which isn't many) my BASH scripts that manipulate text (FW log parsing scripts and such) to Perl. This is mainly as an exercise to force myself to learn Perl. I could also do Python. This is an educational 2009 goal for me. :)